On 4 October, 1916, in light of the creation of a seaport in the Kolskiy Bay and the building of the Murmansk railroad, port Romanov-on- Murman was founded. In 1917, it received the status of city and its name - Murmansk.
The city is situated among the hills on the shore of the ice-free Kolskiy Bay 50 kilometers away from the exit to the Barents Sea.
Today Murmansk is not only the administrative center of the region but also the world's largest city behind the polar circle, its territory being 150 sq. km. Since 1985, Murmansk has been bearing the title of a hero-city.
Population as of January 1, 2003, - 336 700 people.
Murmansk is the industrial and transport center of the region. Tenth part of the country's catch of fish accounts for the Murmansk region. Besides the fish industry, there are ship-repair, meat-and-milk, baking, as well as other industries. Especially promising and rapidly developing are the enterprises connected with reconnaissance and mastery of the reserves of the hydrocarbon raw material on the shelf of the Arctic seas. Murmansk commercial sea port is the largest ice-free port in Russia that is located outside the polar circle. Murmansk serves as a base for the world's only atomic ice-breaker fleet.
In 1933, the ice-breaker steamship “Chelyuskin” put out to sea from Murmansk. Here, another ice-breaker "Yermak", now a museum in Saint Petersburg, finished its voyage. Air transport, automobile, and railroad reliably connect Murmansk with Saint Petersburg, Moscow, and other cities in Russia, as well as with foreign countries.
Murmansk is a scientific research and cultural center of the region. It is home to many institutions: Polar scientific research institute of sea fisheries and oceanography named in honor of Knipovich (PINRO); Sea biological institute and Polar Geophysical institute of the Russian Science Academy.
In Murmansk, the following art establishments are located: the Puppet theater (the oldest in the country, it it was created in 1933); the Philharmonic Society (1975); the Dramatic theater (1939); the Theater of Northern Fleet; the Palace of Culture (1933 g.); the Universal Scientific library (one of the largest in Russian Northwest, it was founded in 1938 with a fund of 2,5 million copies, inc. publications in the saami language).
The following monuments are built in Murmansk: dedicated to the founders of the Slav written language (Cyril and Mefodiy); in honor of the Combat Comradeship of the countries of the anti-Hitler Coalition; in honor of the Defenders of the Soviet Transarctic; in honor of the Hero of the Soviet Union, Sergeant Bredov; in honor of the soldiers of the 6th Heroic Battery.
There following museums are located in the city: Museum of Local Lore; Museum of the History of Polar Olympiads; Art Museum; Naval Museum of the Northern Fleet; Aviation Museum of the Northern Fleet Air Force; the showroom of the culture department of the administration of Murmansk; the showroom of the Artistic Crafts center.